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In case of less concentrated alloys the distortion of the bcc lattice in the precipitates is much higher and the metastable particles are called isothermal ω having a hexagonal crystal structure from a crystallographic viewpoint (see discussion on athermal ω in Sect. 1 and Fig. 16). Fig. 21. 30]. At low misfits, the ω particles are ellipsoidal with the long axis being parallel to one of the four < 111 > directions of the bcc lattice. An example is shown in the dark field micrograph in Fig. 22 imaging one of the four variants of the ellipsoidal ω particles in a Ti-16Mo alloy aged 48 h at 450°C.

Massive martensite occurs only in pure titanium, very dilute alloys, and in alloys with a high martensitic transformation temperature. “Acicular” martensite occurs in alloys with higher solute content (lower martensitic transformation temperature). 5-1 µm) belonging to the same variant of the Burgers relationship. The “acicular” martensite consists of an intimate mixture of individual α plates, each having a different variant of the Burgers relationship (Fig. 15). Generally, the martensitic plates contain a high dislocation density and sometimes twins.

The martensitic start temperature (MS) of pure titanium depends on the impurity level (oxygen, iron), but lies around 850°C, and increases with increasing amounts of α stabilizers, such as aluminum and oxygen, and decreases with increasing β stabilizer content. 6]. Using these values of the binary systems, a quantitative rule describing the individual effects of β stabilizing elements in terms of an equivalent Mo content was generated for multicomponent alloys: [Mo]eq. 5 [Fe]. Caution should be exercised if attempting to use this equation quantitatively.

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