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By R. Elsair

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Calculate the empirical and molecular formula. 2 Question Calculate the empirical formula of a compound which contains 63% Mn and 37% O. 7 Theoretical yield The yield is the amount of product made in a reaction. Theoretical yield is the amount of product that would be made if there were no experimental errors in the experiment. A chemical equation expresses the ratio of the number of moles of reactants and products (the stoichiometry of the equation). So the expected (theoretical) yield of a reaction can be calculated.

This is called the molar mass, and is given the symbol M. M. M. = 40). 022 x 1023). M. = 28), therefore the molar mass of Si is 28 g mol-1 and is represented by M (Si). 2 Molecules The mole concept is equally applicable to molecules. e. 022 x 1023 molecules). 1 Example Methane is CH4 RMM of methane is RAM of C + 4(RAM H) = 12 + 4x1 = 16 g mol-1 = molar mass of methane In 16g methane we can find one mole of methane. 022 x 1023 methane molecules. M. = (8 x 12) + (10 x 1) + (4 x 14) + (2 x 16) = 194 Therefore a mass of 194 g equals 1 mol of caffeine and 194 g mol-1 is the molar mass of caffeine.

G. g. 2 • Si • S • Ar • K B. Orbital box notation Another way is to show the orbitals as boxes. The electrons are shown as arrows. Those with parallel spins are shown pointing in the same direction. g. 17 The Aufbau Principle Before we can write the electronic configuration for more complicated multi- electron atoms, we need to know the order in which the various orbitals are filled. e. orbitals of the same energy levels) the electrons fill each orbital singly, keeping their spins parallel before spin pairing occurs.

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