By R. Lyman Ott, Micheal T. Longnecker
Ott and Longnecker's AN advent TO STATISTICAL tools and knowledge research, 6th version, offers a huge assessment of statistical equipment for readers who've very little previous adventure in records. The authors educate readers to resolve difficulties encountered in study initiatives, to make judgements according to info usually settings, and to develop into severe readers of statistical analyses in learn papers and in information stories. the 1st 11 chapters current fabric often lined in a college-level introductory records direction, in addition to fascinating case reviews and examples. the remainder chapters disguise regression modeling and layout of experiments.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis (6th Edition)
The investigator can also monitor the interviews to be certain that the specified interview procedure is being followed. A major problem with telephone surveys is that it is difficult to find a list or directory that closely corresponds to the population. Telephone directories have many numbers that do not belong to households, and many households have unlisted numbers. A technique that avoids the problem of unlisted numbers is random-digit dialing. In this method, a telephone exchange number (the first three digits of a seven-digit number) is selected, and then the last four digits are dialed randomly until a fixed number of households of a specified type are reached.
The final column of the table shows the difference between the predicted winning percentage from the exit polls and the actual winning percentage from the election. This table shows that the exit polls predicted George Bush to win in only 2 of the 11 crucial states, and this is why the media were predicting that John Kerry would win the election even before the polls were closed. In fact, Bush won 6 of the 11 crucial states, and, perhaps more importantly, we see in the final column that in 10 of these 11 states the difference between the election percentage margin from the actual results and the predicted margin of victory from the exit polls favored Bush.
An excellent discussion of this topic can be found in the textbook, Sampling: Design and Analysis by Sharon L. Lohr (1999), Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury Press. The basic design (simple random sampling) consists of selecting a group of n units in such a way that each sample of size n has the same chance of being selected. Thus, we can obtain a random sample of eligible voters in a bond-issue poll by drawing names from the list of registered voters in such a way that each sample of size n has the same probability of selection.