By Edward G. Pita P.E.
utilizing no less than arithmetic, this ebook explores the elemental suggestions of air-con and their program to systems—explaining all recommendations in a transparent, sensible demeanour, and concentrating on difficulties and examples usually encountered at the activity. This publication comprises the latest and industry-wide approved info on load calculations, layout information, apparatus details, and use of the net. particular bankruptcy themes disguise the scope and makes use of of air-con; actual rules; heating so much; furnaces and boilers; hydronic piping platforms and terminal devices; cooling load calculations; psychrometrics; fluid circulate in piping and ducts; piping, valves, ducts, and insulation; fanatics and air distribution units; centrifugal pumps, enlargement tanks, and venting; air-con platforms and kit; refrigeration platforms and kit; computerized controls; power usage and conservation; instrumentation, checking out, and balancing; and making plans and designing the HVAC process; and sunlight heating and cooling structures. For consulting engineers, mechanical contractors, HVAC engineers, designers, undertaking managers, and amenities managers.
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Extra info for Air Conditioning Principles and Systems An Energy Approach
For these pumps, the gears are made of a variety of metals, but mostly steel. Hardness runs from that of mild steel to very hard treated steels to produce high pressures. For nonlubricating ﬂuids, bronze and a variety of nonmetallic materials such as plastic composites, carbon, Teﬂon ®, and ceramics are used. The choice is often dictated by chemical resistance, mechanical properties, and cost. For example, Teﬂon® has excellent chemical resistance but its physical properties often result in excessive wear, low pressure capability, and ﬂuid temperature is limited (high thermal expansion).
Pumps incorporate a pressure relief valve, built into the pump or supplied just downstream of the pump, to protect against over-pressurization. Internal relief valves built into the pump relieve pressure via an internal loop that connects discharge to suction. External valves must be piped to an external source, generally the supply reservoir. The external approach can provide a visual indicating that the valve is open. Relief valve settings are sometimes adjustable and can be tricky. The user should be certain to understand the manufacturer’s deﬁnition of the valve setting and the valve characteristics.
Centrifugals should be considered ﬁrst when applying a pump, but they are not always suited to the application. B. D. D. D. pump. D. D. pumps. It is possible to handle lowviscosity liquids with centrifugal pumps. However, efﬁciency degrades rapidly as viscosity increases and there is an upper limit of viscosity above which it becomes impractical to consider centrifugal pumps due to the excessive waste of energy. Highly viscous liquids absolutely cannot be pumped with a centrifugal pump. ) For these liquids, some type of positive displacement pump may be the only practical solution.