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By Stephan Bathe, Merle De Kreuk

Cardio Granular Sludge has lately bought turning out to be cognizance by means of researchers and know-how builders, around the world. Laboratory reviews and initial box try ended in the belief that granular activated sludge may be with ease proven and profitably utilized in activated sludge crops, supplied "correct" procedure stipulations are selected. yet what makes strategy stipulations "correct"? And what makes granules assorted from activated sludge flocs? solutions to those questions are provided in cardio Granular Sludge. significant issues lined during this booklet contain: - purposes and mechanisms of cardio granule formation - constitution of the microbial inhabitants of cardio granules - position, composition and actual homes of EPS - Diffusion hindrance and microbial task inside of granules - Physico-chemical features - Operation and alertness of granule reactors - Scale-up facets of granular sludge reactors, and case reviews cardio Granular Sludge offers up to date information regarding a swiftly rising new know-how of organic remedy.

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5 bar) for a few minutes until the headloss value decreased from 2 m Aerobic Granulation during Biofilter Startup 27 to 1 m. The following working period, during which the headloss increased from 1 m to 2 m, lasted approximately 30 days afterwards another washing step was necessary. ---*- -- - - 1---1 ! i ! , , . washingai r Effluent Figure 1: Sketch of the sequencing batch biofilm reactor used during the investigation. 05 kg TSSlkg CODremoved. 5. Activated sludge from a local municipal wastewater treatment plant was used as inoculum.

1c). Larger granules may also result from merging of smaller granules. The formation of radial aggregates of nitrifying bacteria (Fig. 1b), in a direction that is normal to the granule surface, is probably driven by the co-existence of steep oxygen gradient and reverse ammonia gradient created by release of ammonia from the central core of granule where biomass is lysed. This hypothesis was examined in independent experiments on the growth of enrichment cultures of nitrifying bacteria in Noble Agar where oxygen was supplied through the agar surface but where ammonia was supplied from the bottom of the agar layer.

This measure lumps together granules and biomass attached to the carrier. The hydrodynamic shear forces were calculated by a procedure developed by the authors. lF (1- E) 1,75pF t=----,-+ , Dp SR SR- E- 2 1 , E- ( 1) where: I! , p) known. 75 pFD" (2) Results and discussion During the start-up period (about three months), biomass granulation was obtained according to the following steps. In particular, during the first days of the experimentation it was observed that a thin biofilm completely covered the carrier surface with an average biofilm concentration in the filter bed of about 7 gTSS/L bed and a headloss lower than 10 em.

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