By John M. Keegan
A Reference Grammar of Mbay offers an exceptional advent to the grammars of Mbay, a Central-Sudanic languuge of the Sara relations defined in a Dictionary of Mbay through an analogous writer. it truly is in line with large box study one of the Mbay in Chad through the interval information for the dictionary was once accrued. The grammar is diveded into 8 sections. the 1st 5 describe the phonology and morphology. First. segmental phonology is defined, and a radical clarification and justification of the writing method is equipped, by means of an outline of tone and vowel size. the second one part treats morpheme constitution, with emphasis at the canonical and harmonic constraints which restrict the form of Mbay morphemes. The inflectional paradigms are defined within the 3rd part, and this is often within the fourth through a proof of the phonological swap linked to inflection, with emphasis on an outline of the differing kinds of tonal switch. part 5 treats the restricted note formation approaches present in the language. part six via 8 deal with Mbay syntax. part six describes the constitution and makes use of of the several different types and subcategories, and contains descriptions of alienable/inalienable nouns, verb element, serial verbs, adjectival makes use of of verbs and nouns, and some of the makes use of of ideophones, specifiers and compleentizers. part seven bargains with note order, describing sentence order in addition to the constitution of the noun, verb and prepositional word. incorporated during this part are a couple of precise buildings and expressions. ordinarily, the outline contained in those sections makes an attempt to be wide in scope, and comprises explanatations of the way to precise universal options (e.g. life, impersonal expression, comparability, superlative, etx.) in addition to fascinating points of Mbay syntax which go beyond person different types (eg. the idea of 'standing/ sitting/lying').
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They set out five major critiques of the dominant ‘agricultural-botany evaluation’ paradigm: an evaluation strategy which ‘utilises a hyptheticodeductive methodology derived from the experimental and mental-testing traditions in psychology’: 1. The nature of educational programs means that a randomised, representative sample of key parameters is not feasible, particularly at an early stage of the innovative program when evaluation is required. 2. Before and after research designs are premised on the notion that there is no evolution of circumstances or thinking within the programme.
The data for the critique are from observation in classrooms which are responding to the curriculum. 2. Evaluation should identify the potential of the curriculum or educational practice in relation to its purpose and actual context. 3. Evaluation should identify interesting problems: a requirement of improvement is understanding and finding strategies to deal with barriers to learning which are persistent or recurring. 4. Evaluation should address local conditions: improvement is possible only if the potential of innovative practices (2 above) works to resolve the interesting problems (3 above).
Rea-Dickins notes: If evaluation is ELT is to be effective, we will see a stronger integration of evaluation within practice, as part of an individual’s professionalism and an increase in collaborative activity where teachers (and other relevant practitioners) are actively engaged in the monitoring process. (1994: 84) The contributions of Parlett and Hamilton and Stenhouse and his colleagues in many ways rewired evaluation theory. The ways in which evaluation processes 36 Program Evaluation in Language Education interfaced with practice on the one hand, and educational research on the other, posited radically different roles for all participants in the curriculum.