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By Wade Pickren, Alexandra Rutherford

In A background of contemporary Psychology in Context, the authors face up to the normal storylines of significant achievements by way of eminent humans, or colleges of proposal that upward push and fall within the wake of medical growth. as an alternative, psychology is portrayed as a community of medical practices embedded in particular contexts. The narrative is educated by means of 3 key concepts—indigenization, reflexivity, and social constructionism—and through the interesting interaction among disciplinary Psychology and daily psychology.

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If the brain and soul are equivalent, and the soul directs human behavior, then neurophysiology or experimentation is unnecessary. If, however, at least some aspects of human behavior are based in stimuli and responses at the physiological level, then experimental approaches to understanding human behavior are needed. Hall’s proposal of reflex action and behavior was, at first, accepted only as accurate for the lower nerve centers. By the end of the 19th century, reflex action was 13 extended to the highest centers of the brain, as the work of Fritsch and Hitzig and that of Ferrier showed.

Now, we turn to the work of Darwin to examine how it finally established human nature as just that, part of nature and thus subject to lawful relationships like the rest of nature. DARWIN, NATURAL SELECTION, AND THE LAWS OF NATURE Charles Darwin (1809–1882), naturalist, was a careful observer and thinker who was both a person of his time and a person whose ideas transformed the course of history. His work affected many intellectual and scientific fields, including Psychology. At least four key contributions came to the development of Psychology from the work of Darwin.

However, it should be noted that Hartley’s aim was religious, to inspire his fellow man to pursue God’s design for humans. The experimentation and writing of the 18th-century British physicians Robert Whytt (1714–1766) and William Cullen (1794–1878) both facilitated the public’s understanding that mind and brain were intimately connected and offered a way to elide the old mind–body dualism that bedeviled research on mental processes. Whytt suggested in his 1751 book On the Vital and Other Involuntary Motions of Animals that an organism’s response to stimuli involved the action of volition, a function of the higher mental powers, but this volitional response was not necessarily conscious.

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