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By Mark L O van de Velde

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10 Phonology Table 1. Consonant phonemes obstruent stop -voice +voice fricative -voice +voice son. nasal appr. 1. Discussion of some phonemes and oppositions /ҷ/ & /Ě/ Phonetically /ҷ/ and /Ě/ are affricates. They contain a stop part and a fricative part. Phonologically, positing a separate class of affricates will lead to a proliferation of feature distinctions, so it is better to classify them as either fricatives or stops. The morphophoneme |S| is represented by /ҷ/ after |Ͱ| and by /s/ elsewhere.

It occurs only after a pause. However, after a pause vowels are sometimes preceded by a glottal stop. ní ‘resemblance’ This list can be summarised as follows. Syllables minimally consist of a nucleus, either a vowel or a sonorant consonant. A syllable with a consonantal nucleus cannot have an onset or a coda. If the nucleus is a vowel, any consonant can serve as an onset. Branching onsets consist either of a voiced stop preceded by a homorganic nasal, or of any consonant followed by a glide. Double branching onsets have a voiced stop preceded by a homorganic nasal and followed by a glide.

3. 17 Elsewhere, the morphophoneme |l| can be represented by either /l/ or /i/ or it can be left unrepresented. Zero-representation and representation by /i/ are clearly lenition rules. 2 due to their problematic conditioning. The choice seems to be sometimes free or dialectally conditioned and sometimes lexically conditioned. Compare the verb stem in (33b) to stems like tìl ‘write’, kpál ‘be loquacious’ and Ěòl ‘be bitter’, in which the final |l| is obligatorily represented by /l/. Zero-representation gives rise to compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel.

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