This guide discusses a number of structures and the apparatus (components or assemblies) they include, and describes gains and changes. this knowledge is helping approach designers and operators in deciding upon and utilizing gear. This variation contains a new bankruptcy 18, Variable-Refrigerant-Flow structures, which describes those structures, their parts, and acceptable criteria intimately, and features a process layout instance and significant information on expenses, controls, and protection. This guide is a reference for engineers operating in HVAC&R and for execs in allied fields. ASHRAE, based in 1894, is a global association of a few 50,000 folks. ASHRAE fulfills its undertaking of advancing heating, air flow, air con, and refrigeration to serve humanity and advertise a sustainable global via examine, criteria writing, publishing, and carrying on with schooling.
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Extra resources for 2012 ASHRAE Handbook - Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment (SI Edition)
Heat gain in medium-pressure systems is about 1 K per kilopascal static pressure. • The supply duct may gain or lose heat from the surroundings. Most energy codes require that the supply duct be insulated, which is usually good practice regardless of code requirements. Uninsulated supply ducts delivering cool air are subject to condensation formation, leading to building water damage and potential mold growth, depending on the dew-point temperature of surrounding air. • Controlling humidity in a space can affect the air quantity and become the controlling factor in selecting supply airflow rate.
Cooling towers provide the same means of heat rejection as evaporative condensers but pass outdoor air through an open condenser return water spray to achieve similar adiabatic cooling performance. Either natural or mechanical-draft cooling towers or spray ponds can be used; the mechanical-draft tower (forced-draft, induced-draft, or ejector) can be most easily designed for most conditions because it does not depend on wind. Cooling tower types and sizes range from packaged units to field-erected towers with multiple cells in unlimited sizes.
The operating cost depends on the system selected, the designer’s skill in selecting and correctly sizing components, efficiency of the duct design, and effect of building design and type on the operation. Because an all-air system separates the air-handling equipment from occupied space, maintenance on major components in a central Fig. 4 2012 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment (SI) heat by contacting heat transfer surfaces and by mixing with air of another condition. Some of this mixing is intentional, as at the outdoor air intake; other mixing results from the physical characteristics of a particular component, as when untreated air passes through a coil without contacting the fins (bypass factor).